Poster

1. Compatibility of Tropical Shade Tolerant Forages to be Developed in the Under Oil-Palm Plantation Pasture System in Indonesia

Acep Usman Abdullah, Dinas Pertanian dan Ketahanan Pangan Kabupaten Fakfak, Papua Barat

Stream: Academic : Academic paper and oral presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

Cattle raised in the Cattle-Oil Palm Integrated Production System (COPIPS) may obtain feed from either plants that grow under the canopy system or by-product of the oil palm. Plant species that grow in COPIPS should be shade-tolerant which capable to grow well under the limited light. This paper aims to investigate the compatibility of the shade tolerant forages to be planted under oil palm plantation and to propose possible planting system that could be implemented in Indonesia. Previous studies on tropical shade tolerant species identification and Tropical Forages Database offered the precious information of the potential species. Further selection of the candidates was carried out in this study using the parameters of weed status, competition on with main crop, palatability of ruminant feeds, and distribution in Indonesia. This study has discovered 9 species of legumes (out of 39 candidates) and 14 species of grass (out of 34 candidates) which are potentially suitable to COPIPS in Indonesia. Planting using grass-legume mixture system, for example, Brachiaria humidicola + Arachis pintoi and Panicum maximum + Centrosema pubescens, is a recommended method in the pasture establishment. Germination and emergence and seedling growth and survival are critical stages suggesting proper pre-sowing treatment for each individual species and conducting a field trial to confirm the applicability of this pasture establishment concept. This study would provide valuable preliminary information for pasture establishment under oil palm plantation in the country.

2. Pasture Observation in SISKA Models

Ellentika Damayanti, Esnawan Budisantoso, Indonesia-Australia Commercial Catlle Breeding Program

Stream: Commercial : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

SISKA has been considered as one of the potential herd management models in Indonesia. SISKA model has many benefits such as optimize the utilization of plantation area as grazing area, natural weed control, feed cost efficiency, utilization of waste palm oil processing and plantation as feed supplement for cattle, and cattle labour cost efficiency. SISKA model can be applied in area with has an average rainfall between 1028 mL/year and 4258 mL/year and has an enough biomass between 125.1 kg DM/ha – 685.9 kg DM/ha. The observation is conducted by measuring of light transmission at the different age of plantation and biomass availability in 4 project partners of Indonesia-Australia Commercial Cattle Breeding in Bengkulu, Lampung, South Kalimantan, dan Central Kalimantan, since 2017-2018. Estimation of biomass measurement under palm plantation through sampling method have shown results of forages availability that will be in line with the age and light transmission under palm shade. Biomass production will be high when the trees are up to 7 years after planting and will continue to decrease after shade has completely covering in about 15 years after planting and the forages will grow well when the trees reach to age of 20 years where light penetration is higher due to less shading. Many of dominant species are found under palm plantation and palatable for cattle such as Axonopus compressus, Ottochloa sp., Nephrolepis biserata, Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria javanica, Mucuna bracteate, Asystasia gangetica, dan Paspalum conjugatum.

3. Stenotaphrum Secundatum – a Potential Grazing Pasture under Oil-palm Plantation

Esnawan Budisantoso, Yully Pudjianto and Wahyu Darsono, IACCB, PT Kalteng AndiniPalma Lestari and PT Buana Karya Bhakti

Stream: Commercial : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

Forage development under oil palm plantation was generally constrained by the shade of the palm canopies or the light intercepted by the vegetation. A few species have been identified as having tolerance under shade, one of it is Stenotaphrum secundatum (Steno or buffalo grass). When it established the grass was able to form a thick layer like a carpet that is relatively resistant to be trampled by grazing animals. Planting trials conducted under oil-palm plantation block at project sites in Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan since 2017 showed that biomass production yielded up to 2500 kg DM and 1700 kg DM/ha/year under 7 years and 9-10 years old plantation, respectively. Planting grass under older trees takes up to 7 months to established, whilst it takes up to 4 months under 7 years plantation. Steno grass is suitable for Brahman’s calves and growers grazing with minimal impact on frequent grazing. The nutritional values was considered as medium quality forages, with 6-8% crude protein, NDF of 66-72% and ADF of 64-68%. Steno contains anti-nutrient of 1% oxalates in the dry matter, but no adverse effects to livestock. However, there were disadvantages of this grass, it takes times for pasture establishment and costly propagation due to vegetative propagation, seed production is not applicable. Steno grass potentially be developed for pastures under oil-palm plantation, it maintains its yield down to 40% of sunlight.

4. The Effect of Preservation Methods on Fermentability and In Vitro Digestibility of Oil Palm Frond–Indigofera Zollingeriana Combination and Its Effect on Brahman Cross Performance

Rio Dewantoro, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Stream: Commercial : Written report and oral presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

The Effect of Preservation Methods on Fermentability and In Vitro Digestibility of Oil Palm Frond–Indigofera zollingeriana Combination and Its Effect on Brahman Cross Performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of preservation methods on fermentability and in vitro digestibility of oil palm frond-Indigofera zollingeriana combination and to evaluate the effect of feeding oil palm frond-Indigofera zollingeriana silage on brahman cross on its performance. The treatments consisted of ; P0 = control, P1 = silage, P2 = dried silage, P3 = Hay, P4 = Haylage. The result of this study shown that the preservation treatments has significant effect on total VFA production, ammonia production, dry matter digestibility, and organic matter digestibility. Cafetaria feeding oil palm frond-Indigofera zollingeriana silage and palm kernel meal-based concentrate on 12 female brahman cross grower for 30 days resulted 0.62 ± 0.42 kg/head/day average daily gain with 4.0 ± 0.9 kg/head/day silage consumption and 3.0 ± 0.8 kg/head/day concentrate consumption. Keywords : brahman cross, fermentability, in vitro, oil palm frond

5. Potensi Limbah Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Sumber Pakan Ternak Sapi Potong di Kalimantan Selatan

Akhmad Hamdan , Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Kalimantan Selatan

Stream: Academic : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

The main problem facing beef cattle breeding, especially during the dry season is the difficulty to provide readily available quality forage. Lacking of feed causes a drastic decrease in cattle productivity, and forces many farmers to sell their cattle at relatively cheaper price. The use of palm oil waste as feed is one of the alternatives to deal with the feed scarcity problem in beef cattle breeding business. Palm oil waste that are potential and can be utilized as beef cattle feed are palm fronds, palm oil sludge, palm kernel cake, palm leaves, extracted fibers, and empty bunches. The limiting factor such as low quality of palm oil waste can be improved through several treatments so as to bring positive and optimal influence on animal growth. Physical, chemical and biological treatments are the alternatives to improve the quality of palm oil waste. Palm oil plantation waste is a potential feed source for beef cattle breeding in South Kalimantan.
Keywords: Palm, Cattle, Feed.

6. Productivity of Biomass from Two Accessions of Indigofera Zolingeriana L

Juwartina Ida R, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Stream: Academic : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

As a forage, productivity of biomass of Indigofera zolingeriana L is important thing to be test. This is intended to find out how much biomass is produced in the area of forage planting that can be converted to forage that needs for animal feed. The aimed of this research was to test the productivity of biomass of 2 accessions of Indigofera zolingeriana, from Cianjur-West of Java and Pemalang-Central of Java accessions. Two accessions of Indigofera zolingeriana were planting on polybag with 40x40 sized and grown at Green House. From the parameter that observed, the results showed that accession from Cianjur-West of Java produced biomass higher than Pemalang-Central of Java accession with 257.4 of wet weight and 76.42 of dry weight of plants. The average of shoot height of Cianjur-West of Java reached 165 cm higher when compared to Pemalang-Central of Java accession with an average height of shoots was 122 cm. The number of leaves also showed the same growth as height of shoots, in Cianjur-West of Java accession, the average number of leaves was 28 leaves/plant while in the accession of Pemalang-Central of Java the average number of leaves was 25 leaves/plants.

7. In Vitro Screening Assay of the Supplementation of Several Ruminal Microbe Consortium on Palm Oil-Based Complete Feed For Enhancing Total Gas Production and Degradability

Dimar Sari Wahyuni, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Stream: Academic : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

This study was conducted to evaluate total gas production and degradability of in vitro complete feed based on palm oil byproduct supplemented with several ruminal microbe consortium, and obtain a consortium of rumen bacteria and optimal probiotic doses. The experiment was applied in Randomized Block Design with 16 treatments and 3 groups. The substrates for the experiment was palm oil-based complete feed (70% palm oil fronds, 30% concentrate) (% DM) as control, with the treatments were different dosages and forms of probiotics 0.0015 grams (powder form) and 3 ml (liquid form). Variables observed were total gas production (ml), dry matter degradability (DMD) and organic matter degradability (OMD). Data were analyzed with ANOVA and continued with Duncan Test. The result showed that the bacterial consortium with the code NBR153B, MRSB8, MBI in liquid form as much as 3 ml (R9 treatment) increased total gas production (P <0.01), but DMD and OMD value showed no significant effect (P>0.05) with the addition of probiotics 0.0015 grams (powder form) and 3 ml (liquid form). In conclusion, the treatment R9 (palm oil-based complete feed+ 3 ml ruminal microbe consortium NBR153B, MRSB8, MBI in liquid form) improved total gas production, while the effect on DMD and OMD were the same as control.

8. Pemanfaatan Limbah Cair Pabrik Kelapa Sawit sebagai Campuran Ransum Sapi Potong

Yully Pudjianto, PT. KAL (Medcoagro)

Stream: Commercial : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal feeding and pastures

Summary:

This experiment aims to measure cattle performance in terms of feed consumption, daily weight gain, and the conversion ratio of cattle feed, with the addition of palm oil fluid waste in beef cattle ration. The cattle involved in the experiment were 18 heads of Brahman Cross aged 17-18 months with an average body weight of 179 kg kept in separated pens. The cattle were divided into 3 groups, each group consisting of 3 males and 3 females. The ration provided was 2.2% of body weight on dry matter based. Treatment were T0 (12.5% king grass + 87.5% concentrate), T2 (12.5% king grass + 85% concentrate + 2.5% liquid waste), T3 (12.5% king grass + 82.5% concentrate + 5% liquid waste). The experiment results show that feed consumption, daily weight gain, and the conversion feed ratio for T0, T1, and T2 were 4.3 kg/head/day, 4.1 kg/head/day, and 4.5 kg/head/day (DM), 0.8 kg/head/day, 0.7 kg/head/day, and 0.9 kg/head/day, 5.4 kg/head/day, 5.9 kg/head/day, and 5 kg/head/day respectively. The conclusion is that palm oil liquid waste can be used as a mixture in beef cattle ration.

9. Pre-weaning growth of Bali Calf on Different Seasons Kept in Oil Palm Plantation

Panjono, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Stream: Academic : Academic paper and oral presentation

Topic: Animal health and reproduction

Summary:

This study aims to determine the effect of the season on the pre-weaning growth of Bali calf kept in oil palm plantations. The study was conducted on cows and calves grouped by time of calving, dry season (DS) in May-October and the rainy season (RS) in November-April. The calf and cows are maintained with a semi-intensive system, which is grazing from 8 am to 5 pm in the oil palm plantations without additional feeding. Data retrieval of the cows and calf body weights were carried out from birth to weaning (150 days). The data obtained were analyzed using one way analysis of variance. The DS cows has an average daily gain (ADG) during lactation months I to V, respectively -0,11±0,30; -0,01±0,31; -0,09±0,36; -0,01±0,19; 0,15±0,22 while the cows RS, respectively 0,28±0,28; -0.23±0.27; -0,06±0,44; -0,03±0,31; 0,08±0,18. The calves had ADG months I to V in the DS group respectively 0,41±0,14; 0,33±0,11; 0,30±0,11; 0,30±0,11; 0,29±0,11, while the calf RS respectively 0,41±0,09; 0,32±0,06; 0,30±0,05; 0,25±0,06; 0,28±0,56. In the I to IV month of lactating, the cows have a decrease in weight. The decrease in the weight of the cows DS and RS was not significantly different, except in the second month, the decrease in the weight of the cows DS was high (P<0.05) than the RS. ADG of the calf in the DS and RS groups did not differ from months I to V. It was concluded that the season did not affect the pre-weaning growth of Bali calf kept in oil palm plantations.

10. Data Curah Hujan Jangka Panjang Sebagai Alat untuk Pengelolaan Perkawinan Sapi yang Terkontrol

Esnawan Budisantoso, Ellentika Damayanti, Cut Dara Permata Sari, Indonesia-Austrlalia Commercial Cattle Breeding Program

Stream: Commercial : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal health and reproduction

Summary:

The high rainfall in the IACCB project areas in Kalimantan and Sumatra has been the reason behind high calf mortality, which would eventually reduce the cattle breeding productivity in an extensive grazing system. Calving during the peak of wet season are not favorable for calves born in the pasture, where there is no shelter from high rainfall which could last for days. One of the strategies to overcome this problem is controlled mating.Data of long-term rainfall (> 10 years) would be critical for cattle managers to get a picture of rainfall patterns in the regions, which can be used in the controlled mating strategy that involves the time management for bulls to join or pull out from the herds. We have collected rainfall data for the past> 10 years at each project site in Kalimantan and Sumatra to obtain rainfall patterns that were used to develop specific cattle breeding strategy at each project site. Rainfall data collected shows that each project location has a different pattern, with rainfall ranging from 1500 - 4500 mm / year and different distribution of peak rainy season in each location. With the available data and a controlled mating strategy, it is expected that calves will be born outside the peak wet season period, when small calves are vulnerable to extreme weather, and is expected to reduce calves mortality in the future.

11. Animal Welfare Issue in Integrated Cattle and Oil Palm Farming System in Dusun Anyar Village, Pondok Kubang District, Central Bengkulu Regency

Nurmeiliasari, Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu

Stream: Academic : Academic paper and oral presentation

Topic: Animal health and reproduction

Summary:

This study aimed to asses the aplication of animal welfare issue in integrated cattle and oil palm farming system in Dusun Anyar Village, Pondok Kubang District, Central Bengkulu Regency. A research had been conducted by a survey involving 46 Bali cattle farmers in Dusun Anyar village. Integrated Bali cattle and Oil Palm farming is applied in the area of 200 hectares oil palm plantation. There are 300 Bali cattle rear under small holder rearing system which were distributed into 15 Bali cattle farmer groups. Oil palm plantation industries have been the highly potential source of fiber diet for beef cattle development in Pondok Kubang district. With tremendous grasses and legumes produced in the oil palm plantation area, Dusun Anyar has the potential to feed more beef cattle for breeding purposes. Based on survey, Grazing system is the only feeding system applied in Dusun Anyar Village, the farmers provide a traditional housing and ad libitum drinking water for Bali cattle. Housing and feeding management were similar for all beef cattle; thus it is an issue for pregnant cow and calf. Some cases of diseases such as diarrhoea and tick were observed. Predator is another issue that was recorded. Farmers were lacking of education on good farming practices and animal welfare standard. This study concluded that there are animal welfare issues in integrated cattle-oil palm faming system in Dusun Anyar village Pondok Kubang District, Central Bengkulu Regent.

12. Cortisol Levels And Reproduction Status Related In Cattle On Oil Palm Plantation Rearing

Rahma Isartina Anwar, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Stream: Academic : Poster presentation

Topic: Animal health and reproduction

Summary:

Cortisol is a hormone that is released routinely and has a number of constructive functions. Importantly, the release of cortisol is often increased in response to stress. In cattle, higher levels of cortisol are frequently linked to heightened and prolonged stress responses. Cattle in oil palm plantation tend to increase stress level and related to gestation period. This investigation was conducted to examine the relationship between cortisol levels and reproduction status related in 25 brahman cross cattle in oil palm plantation rearing. The subject were divided into 4 groups as non pregnancy, trimester 1, 2 and 3 of pregnancy. Cortisol was measured in serum sample using cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to kit instruction. The result show that cortisol levels in non pregnancy cattle, trimester 1, trimester 2, trimester 3 were 72,29 ± 5,76 ng/mL, 324,02 ± 32,92 ng/mL, 156,06 ± 46,29 ng/mL, 408,82 ± 60,12 respectively. The highest cortisol level was reached by trimester 3 of gestation group, while the lowest cortisol level was in non gestation group. The results indicate that stress is elevating during late gestation period in cattle.

13. Factors affecting demand and supply of beef in East Kalimantan: implications for cattle palm integration

Christie Chang, University of New England

Stream: Academic : Academic paper and oral presentation

Topic: Operational Management

Summary:

Demand for beef has been increasing in Indonesia in recent decades as a result of population and income growth, as well as urbanisation. However, local supply has been unable to meet the growing demand. The gap has been met by live cattle imports from NTT, NTB and Sulawesi, and by frozen beef from overseas. East Kalimantan (EK), with a beef self sufficiency rate of around 30%, provides a good case for understanding the many factors that affect the demand for, and supply of, beef around Indonesia. This study is based on desktop research, and informant interviews of key market chain players, including butchers, interisland traders, farmer groups, and local government officials. Field research was conducted in PPU and Paser districts that are supported by government to develop integrated cattle oil palm enterprises, and in cities of Samarinda and Balikpapan where most beef is consumed. Preliminary results indicate that although consumers/households and the food service sector may still prefer locally slaughtered fresh beef, actual purchases are dictated to a greater extent by relative prices of competing products. Competition can come from not only between different beef types but also between beef and fish and chicken. The beef market in EK is shaped in part by government policies, some aim at lowering beef price for consumers while others aim at encouraging local cattle production. However, given the complexity of the market chain it is very challenging to find a good balance between seemingly conflicting policy objectives, resulting in a less stable market.

14. Detection of Ganoderma spp From Feces of Cattle in Integrated Oil Palm System Based on Selective Medium

Winda Nawfetrias, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Stream: Academic : Poster presentation

Topic: Operational Management

Summary:

The aim of this research were recognized Ganoderma spp in cattle feces and answered related issue about development of basal steam root disease caused by Ganoderma spp in oil palm plantation. Cattle feces that have been exposed to soil from oil plam plantation tested by Ganoderma Selective Medium and dilution methode. Samples derived from pastured cattle in Karya Lestari and Sarwo Sari Plantation, Pelalawan, Riau. Cattles feed grass, plam kernel cake fibrous and solid heavy paste from oil palm in Karya Lestari Plantation, meanwhile cattle feed palm leaf silage, solid heavy paste from oil palm and palm kernel cake fibrous in Sarwo Sari Plantation. The result showed 13 isolates from Karya Lestari and 10 isolates from Sarwo Sari that suspected as Ganoderma spp. Morphology analysis showed that 5 isolates from Karya Lestari and 1 isolates from Sarwo Sari have same morphology with Ganoderma spp. Microscopic analysis showed that all isolates do not have clamp connection, clamp connection is a structure that occurs only in the class Basidiomycetes. The result of this experiment is Ganoderma spp not found in cattle feces that pastured in Karya Lestari and Sarwo Sari integrated oil palm system.